Monthly Archives: August 2011

Are You Being Distracted by Facebook?

As a “Techie-Guy” by nature, I love my iPhone, my Xbox-360 and any of the numerous devices that have come on the scene to keep us entertained and informed in this hustle and bustle world. Along with these devices have come websites that seem to make us feel like we wouldn’t know what to do if they never existed. Case in point… Facebook. A handy little website that enables us to keep in contact with our loved ones and reclaim our long lost friendships of yesteryear. While we’ve been provided the gift of staying in touch and knowing what Suzy and Tommy from grade school are doing now, along with that comes those annoying posts that people feel they have to let everyone know about. Like I really want to know that your cat has an ongoing digestive problem or that you currently hold the high score on Farmville. After graduating from college, one of my first acts as a new pastor was to prioritize my life. That means God, family, ministry. Recently, when we decided to take a family vacation, my wife and I decided to disconnect from all social sources; email, news, and yes… Facebook. While Facebook can be a good tool, what we discovered was that if you are truly honest with yourself as we were, I think you’ll agree that it really has become sort of a distraction. Answer this… Do you spend more time on Facebook or in HIS book? Do you feel the need to check Facebook everyday… several times? Do you sublimely just tap on the Facebook App on your smart phone? Gotcha… you’re being distracted!

Recently, I came a cross a national poll that states that the typical person spends an average of 6.5 combined hours each week on Facebook. Do the math, that’s over 1-day a month that Americans spend on a website! What could you be doing with this time? After my wife and I returned from our vacation of cutting out all social media from our lives, we discovered something very interesting. We were happier, less annoyed, and more dedicated to our family. Some people might say that this was “Just because you were on vacation.” I would say, “No, it’s because I didn’t have to listen to someone tell me “If you’re blah, blah, blah… Repost this on your wall!” Come on, let’s be truthful here. Has this what we’ve really led ourselves to become more concerned with? Yes, Facebook can be a good keep-in-touch tool, and even used greatly for ministry; but is it taking you away from the real world and God’s call on your life?

The Bible is clear; Satan has one goal in mind, “To steal and kill and destroy” (John 10:10). And guess what, at this point, he’s winning. Divorce is at an all time high, teenage pregnancy is off the charts, and our children can be subjected to pornography within seconds of most Google search results. He will stop at nothing to win. And distraction is just one of his tactics that he uses to avert our minds away from pursuing God’s purpose for our lives and furthering Christ’s ministry. I’m not saying that Facebook is the Devil and you should disconnect from it (well not in this post anyway); but I am saying that when you become more obsessed with checking Facebook than reading the Bible then there is a problem. When you go through your day what book do you access first; Facebook or HIS Book? This American distraction has taken our time away from reading and studying the Bible, spending quiet time with God, and spending time with family; in short we’ve lost our biblical worldview.

If you are one of the elite that spend more time with God than on Facebook, then I commend you. But I’ll bet if most of us (present company included prior to this media separation experience) are honest, we’ll find that Satan has done a pretty good job of keeping us distracted from God. Look, my point is not to write this with the view of condemning you, but to make you aware of what is going on in the world. Our attack is no different than Jesus Himself once faced. Satan once tried to distract Jesus while He was enduring His wilderness experience and at Capernaum while He was beginning His powerful ministry. If Satan tried to distract Jesus, suffice to say that he too will try and come up with another tactic to distract our time away from fulfilling God’s call on our lives and our own powerful ministries.

It is my hope from this blog that you really stop and think. Where is your time being spent? We must all reclaim a deliberate walk with Christ and place more emphasis on what we are called to do. Preach the Gospel and love on our families; and this begins by cutting the umbilical cord of social media. Think I’m aloof in my call to action? There are many prominent pastoral leaders today that not only agree with what I’m saying, but also call for their congregations to completely disconnect from Facebook all together. Why? Because they know all to well that if we as Christ followers want to truly take charge of your lives, then we have to start by getting rid of various distractions; and with Facebook claiming that they will have reached 1-billion Facebook accounts by end of 2012, clearly Facebook has become a very real distraction in modern society. I’m not calling for you to go and delete your Facebook account; however I am hoping that for the sake of your family and walk with Christ you place limits on this distraction so that you can get back on the right path toward taking purposeful action daily! When we reclaim the sanity from Mark Zuckerberg’s college experiment spiraling out of control; we will all be brought back to our wealthy place in God so that we can be a blessing to His kingdom here on earth.

In closing, forgive me if you can’t find me to friend on Facebook; I no longer have one. I finally decided enough was enough. I’m making my life about His Kingdom, and not a social media site that has a proven track record of creating division amongst families and the Body of Christ! Don’t believe me? A quick Google search will shock you! Hmm… A rise in divorce, a rise in adultery, pornography, child-trafficking arrests, pedophilia arrests, not to mention the constant abuse of your and my privacy; yep, what would we ever do without Facebook?

I am thankful that God has given me a new lease on life. I’m not spending one day taking that for granted. I would hope if you are reading this that it sparks you to take a real hard and close look at your life’s priorities. I’m going to end with a view that I like from my father-in-law (who coincidently also does not use Facebook). He states, “He likes to deal “face-to-face” without the Book.” And isn’t that what we’re called to do, have real relationships? Life is not measured by the number of friends you try and accumulate on your Facebook friends list; it begins by how it’s measured through the relationship you have when you make the decision to accept HIS friend request. Have a blessed day, and remember… “He must increase, but I must decrease” (John 3:30).

Building HIS Kingdom One Soul at a Time…

Pastor Steve

Categories: Marriage and Family | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Preparing for Spiritual Warfare

Many people believe that when one becomes a Christian all our troubles are over. Yet, as many of us know, when you become a Christian essentially our troubles may just be beginning. But how can this be? God is supposed to take care of me; right? The truth is, He does! But what many fail to realize is that because the unbeliever was once closer to being on the side of Satan than God, Satan really never gave them a second thought. Now with a shift to the “good” side, the new believer must get ready to sit in the same passenger seat as other Christians. Essentially, you’ve just become a high-valued target. And as many of us know, it can make for a very bumpy ride at times.

As a former military man, Ephesians 6:10-18 (The Armor of God)has always held a special place in my heart. It is in this passage that Paul brings the Ephesian church to recognize the nature of the battle that not only they faced, but the battle we still face today. As Paul wrote, “For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the powers of this dark world and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms” (Ephesians 6:12). Paul’s words prove significant as they teach us that even when evil presents itself we can stand our ground. We gain the ability to do this when we equip ourselves with the tools that God has given each and everyone of us. This passage brings man to see the real truth; that the Christian life is not a playground, but essentially a spiritual battlefield. As Christ’s followers, Paul provides us with the insight into not only the aspects of the battle we are faced with, but also the protection and weapons with which we are afforded to fight this battle.

Paul begins this passage with a call of unity before the Lord, “Finally, be strong in the Lord and in his mighty power” (Ephesians 6:10); for Paul was fully aware of the impending spiritual battle that each man, woman, and child would face in their lives. As the passage unfolds a metaphorical explanation of God’s armor is provided to the reader. This approach details how one can stand firm against the evil strategies of the devil while using the metaphoric tools of war that God provides to each one of us. While I would love to provide my full exegetical discourse, for the sake of blog space, I will provide a brief summary of the passage in hopes that it will wet your appetite and desire to know more.

As one goes through the armor that God provides in order, Paul begins with the belt of truth. This belt may be looked upon to serve two purposes. To not only serve as a stabilizer for the body, but also to protect the mid-section while providing a restraint to ones garments that sometimes move in the heat of battle. For the believer, this signifies knowing the “truth” of the Bible. When one knows the truth it will help stabilize, protect, and prevent us from stumbling when caught in the battle for our lives.

The next piece of armor is the breastplate of righteousness. The breastplate refers to the armor that protects ones most vital organs; most importantly ones heart. When man lives holy, we are less susceptible to Satan’s attacks. To insure we remain protected, we take up this piece of armor to protect our hearts from the possible attack of Satan. If Satan is allowed to inflict a wound to ones heart, there is an increasingly high chance that the wound will become fatal. Therefore man should look at this metaphor as a reminder from God that we are to live in righteousness.

The third piece of armor is the shoes that protect ones feet. Roman soldiers wore sandals, which were adorned with nails that were driven through the bottoms of the soles.  This provided the soldier with the ability to stand firm and remain sure-footed. This metaphor provides man with the understandings that we are to be well grounded in our faith and knowledge of God. We must be sure we have a firm foothold on what we believe so we will remain steady when the enemy comes against us.

The shield of faith is the fourth piece of armor. While many may envision a small rounded shield, for the Roman soldier, it was a large rectangular shield used to take refuge behind when the fiery arrows of the enemy were launched at them. As believers, we know our shield is not made of iron, but our shield is our faith. And this shield allows us to deflect the wickedness that attacks us while never allowing our bodies to be left exposed.

In his last request, Paul tells us to, “Take the helmet of salvation and the sword of the Spirit” (Ephesians 6:17). Each soldier is equipped with a helmet. Without a helmet, the soldier’s brain would be left exposed. And no matter how protected one may be, without protection of the head, one precise blow could leave the soldier useless. This salvation helmet offers the necessary protection to guard our minds from the enemy’s attacks. And what would armor be without a means of attack? Therefore we are provided with a powerful sword. The sword was an effective weapon in hand-to-hand combat and a necessity to the soldier’s survival. For the believer, this is the Word of God. It is God’s Word that allows us to defeat our enemy with every battle we are faced with.

Paul’s last verse states, “And pray in the Spirit on all occasions with all kinds of prayers and requests. With this in mind, be alert and always keep on praying for all the Lord’s people” (Ephesians 6:18). This verse is written almost as if we are witnessing a briefing room experience. If we are left to go to battle without having a plan, we fail. Yet here we see that we have an advantage over the enemy. We have on-on-one communication with our commanding officer (God). As the old saying goes, the greatest offense is to have the greatest defense. Paul’s words show us that when we use these tools and walk in the Spirit, we are assured to have the distinct advantage over Satan and always walk away from the battle as the victor.

Building HIS Kingdom One Soul at a Time…

Pastor Steve

Categories: Ephesians | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

The Death of Jesus Christ: Part III – The Mockery

As Jesus hung there on that old Roman cross, one would think that nothing else could compare to the torment that He had just endured. Yet, as it seems, the final blow to Christ’s spirit was not that the soldiers and priests were insulting Him; it was the fact that those, who just a week prior had waved palm branches in His honor had now turned on Him as well. “Those who passed by hurled insults at him, shaking their heads and saying, ‘So! You who are going to destroy the temple and build it in three days, Come down from the cross and save yourself!’” (Mark 15:29-30). As one reads these verses, two significant words should be discerned. First, “The Greek word translated for ‘mocked,’ which is empaizō, meaning ‘to mock,’ or ‘to deceive’” (Brown); and, “The Greek word translated for ‘temple,’ which is naos, meaning ‘sanctuary,’ or ‘metaph’” (Brown). Evidently from the words used to mock Jesus, His predictions about destroying and then raising the temple up were well known. These unbelieving Jews used Christ’s predictions against Him in an attempt to prove that Jesus could not be their Messiah.

Along with those passing by, the chief priests and scribes entered into the blaspheming of Christ and cried out, “‘He saved others,’ they said, ‘but he can’t save himself!” (Mark 15:31). As all believers know, this statement was nothing more than an asserted lie. Yet, for some apparent reason it is a statement that has been questioned on numerous occasions. For it was true, Christ did have the power to end all of this suffering and torment. However, at what cost? To answer this question one need only consider the truth. “He who raised the dead could also have come down from the cross. On the other hand, He could not save Himself if He was to remain true to His mission, if He was to save the world” (Coffman).

When looking at the conclusion of this passage, Mark 15:32 states, “Let this Messiah, this king of Israel, come down now from the cross, that we may see and believe” (Mark 15:32). In order to fully understand this passage, the word “Messiah” should also be defined, “The Hebrew term ‘Messiah,’ or mashiach, is translated by the Greek word christos (from which we get ‘Christ’) in the LXX and the NT. Both words mean ‘anointed.’ In the OT the term occurs thirty-nine times and is used to describe kings” (Stein 124). As the second part of this verse is provided, one sees that, “Those crucified with him also heaped insults on him” (Mark 15:32). While many may know these men crucified with Christ by no other monikers than “thieves,” David Clarke affirms in his commentary these individuals had names. As he specifies, “A copy of the Itala tells their names: One on the right hand-named Zoathon; and one on the left hand-named Chammatha” (Clarke).

As one concludes this passage, it becomes apparent to the reader that even though Christ had the ability, no miracle or intervention performed could have altered the heart of a hypocritical Pharisee. “The Lord did a far more wonderful thing than merely coming down from the cross, when, three days later, he rose from the dead. Even then, however, he did not appear to them. It would have done them no good at all” (Coffman). It is in this account of total humiliation and pain that records the key feature of our Lord’s sustaining grace. Christ has presented Himself to the world as the completely submissive Servant of God, even with the cost of paying for His own life on a Roman cross. It is through this example that we now serve diligently so that we may have the honor of being called one of His devoted servants!

Building HIS Kingdom One Soul at a Time…

Pastor Steve

Works Cited:

Brown, Francis, S.R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs. “A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament.” Searchgodsword.org. 2001-2011. Web. August 7, 2011.

Coffman, James B. “Commentary on Mark 15.” Studylight.org. 2011. Web. August 7, 2011.

Clarke, Andrew. “Andrew Clarke Commentary on Mark 15.” Studylight.org. 2011. Web. August 7, 2011.

 

Categories: The Curcifixion | Tags: , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Death of Jesus Christ: Part II – The Crucifixion

As Mark transitions from a message of servanthood as seen with Simon bearing Christ’s cross, to one of insurmountable agony and pain, it becomes clear that Mark could not bear to detail the horrific account of being crucified. “The Greek word translated for ‘crucified,’ which is stauroō, means ‘to stake,’ or ‘to fortify with driven stakes’” (Brown). The nature of this punishment is death. An act so horrific it seems almost too gruesome to describe. Although the process of crucifixion did not originate with the Romans, they learned to perfect its use as a means of capital punishment designed to torture an individual with extreme pain and suffering that led to ones eventual death. The process entailed laying the victim on their backside as a soldier drives a heavy, square, wrought-iron nail through the wrist and deep into the wooden beam behind. “When the nail was driven through the wrists, it severed the large median nerve going to the hand. This stimulated nerve produced excruciating bolts of fiery pain in both arms, and could result in a claw-like grip in the victim’s hands” (Guzik). This process was then repeated for the remaining wrist and through the arches of the victim’s feet.

Beyond the excruciating pain, and the inability to breath correctly, Christ hung there with the weight of his body pulling Him down. This further increased His feeling of breathlessness. Going hand in hand with lack of oxygen was the increase in muscle cramping. For Christ to try and help Himself breath He would have to push against His feet, flexing His elbows and shoulders. “Putting the weight of the body on the nail-pierced feet produced searing pain, and flexing the elbows twisted the hands hanging on the nails. Lifting the body for a breath also scraped the open wounds on the back against the rough wooden post. Each effort to get a proper breath was agonizing, exhausting, and led to a quicker death” (Guzik).

Along with Christ body being hung on the cross, a notice of His charge for being crucified was affixed above His head. “The written notice of the charge against him read: ‘The King of the Jews.’” (Mark 15:26). “A composite of the four Gospels gives the entire superscription as: This is Jesus of Nazareth the King of the Jews. It was written in three different languages; and from this some have accounted for the variations in the separate reports of the sacred gospels by supposing them to have found such variations in the three languages, some quoting from one language and some from others” (Coffman). The significance of this charge being displayed above Christ’s head mirrors the reason that it was a Roman practice to hold the execution where it took place. The place of the crucifixion was well thought out. Designed to occur near a busy road, the crucifixion most likely occurred on top of a hillside to insure that all could witness what had occurred and the reason for the victims demise.

As verse 25 details, “It was nine in the morning when they crucified him.” (Mark 15:25). Some translations refer to this time period as the “Third Hour.” As mechanical clocks were non-existent in the early times, people in the Bible had to derive their own means of measuring hours. In scripture this process was first noted in the Book of Daniel. However, the most noticeable account comes from Christ’s own words Himself, “Are there not twelve hours in the day?” (John 11:9). “The term ‘hour’ referred to a period of time, one-twelfth of the daylight part of the day. While daylight is longer in summer than in winter, and therefore summer ‘hours’ were longer than winter ‘hours,’ as a general rule the first hour was equivalent to 6 to 7 am on a modern-day clock, and so on” (Blank). As Jesus was crucified during the spring time period, both daylight and darkness are generally of equal length. Therefore, when Christ was crucified and hung from the cross during the “Third Hour” this would equate to around 9 am.

During this period Mark 15:24 states that the soldiers were, “Dividing up his clothes, they cast lots to see what each would get” (Mark 15:24). “The Greek word translated for ‘lots,’ which is klēros, meaning ‘small stone,’ or ‘dice’” (Brown). This can better be understood when one looks at the full definition of the word. The Harper Collins Bible Dictionary defines “lots” as, “Objects for casting or drawing of which was a common method for determining the divine will in ancient Israel and in NT times” (Achtemeier 624). In modern terms, these objects could be viewed as dice or other such objects used to gamble with others in games of chance. How ironic that it appears to the soldiers that saving Christ’s clothing was much more meaningful than saving His precious life.

Building HIS Kingdom One Soul at a Time…

Pastor Steve

Works Cited:
Achtemeier, Paul J. Harper Collins Bible Dictionary. New York, New York: Harper One, 1996. Print.

Blank, Wayne. “Hours of the Day.” Keyway.ca. 2011. Web. August 7, 2011.

Brown, Francis, S.R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs. “A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament.” Searchgodsword.org. 2001-2011. Web. August 7, 2011.

Coffman, James B. “Commentary on Mark 15.” Studylight.org. 2011. Web. August 7, 2011.

Guzik, David. “David Guzik Commentary on Mark 15.” Studylight.org. 2011. Web. August 7, 2011.

 

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The Death of Jesus Christ: Part I – Bearing His Cross

“And they crucified him” (Mark 15:24). What a simple statement that holds a multitude of beliefs, opinions, and emotions. With all four Gospels conveying an account of the last few hours of Christ’s life, I’ve always been partial to Mark’s version because of it’s simplicity and ability to draw the reader into really thinking about what Jesus must have been going through. While most of us have seen the Passion of the Christ and have this Hollywood visual branded in our minds; I’d like to take a more exegetical approach and expand beyond what Mel Gibson portrayed in his classic film.

As one begins to read Mark 15:21-32, the reader is thrust into the understanding that Christ’s life hangs in the balance. As the reader joins Christ’s story, His torment is already in progress. Christ has already faced His Roman trial and affirmed before Pilate His kingship. For this reason Pilate convicts Him of treason. Having been convicted, Jesus is led into the Praetorium; beaten and mocked. After the soldiers grew weary of their sadistic beating of our Savior, Mark 15:21-32 picks up to show that Christ has now been led out of the Praetorium, forced to bear His cross on the way to His demise at Golgotha.

“A certain man from Cyrene, Simon, the father of Alexander and Rufus, was passing by on his way in from the country, and they forced him to carry the cross” (Mark 15:21). When one begins to read Mark 15:21-32 it becomes immediately apparent that the tone of this passage is set; Christ is facing serious peril. As the reader begins to examine key words and phrases associated with Mark’s Gospel, they prove theologically significant to the understanding of the primary focus of the death of Jesus Christ.

From the very beginning, the reader recognizes Mark’s vague, yet straightforward approach to storytelling. It is in this account that one finds Jesus being led away for crucifixion. While He may have been revered in the hearts of many, He was even greater despised by those seeking His execution. Like every other victim of crucifixion, Christ was forced to carry the same wooden beams that in just a few hours He would hang upon till His death. As Christ made his way out of the city, He was so weak that He fell under the unendurable weight of the cross. “When Jesus fell under the weight of the cross, no Roman would help Him carry it. The centurion had the right to compel a local Jew to help carry it, but it would have been an outrage that might lead to uproar or riot. The best solution was to make a stranger carry the cross, so they found a foreigner” (Guzik). This foreigner was an innocent bystander, Simon of Cyrene. Not much is known about Simon. Evidently Simon became a believer in Christ following the events of that day. In Mark’s Gospel he mentions very few people by name other than the Twelve disciples. To the best of scholarly knowledge, Simon was most likely a North African Jew who was in Jerusalem for the season of Passover. He may have been a prominent person in some people’s eyes since Mark mentioned Simon’s sons, Alexander and Rufus; an idea derived from the thought that they were mentioned because the Christians in Rome either acknowledged them or knew of them.

When looking at, “The Greek word translated for ‘cross,’ which is stauros, it means ‘an upright stake’” (Brown). Not only a word, it is a symbol that has become synonymous as the heart of our Christian faith today. It is interesting to note that there are many differing views of what Simon carried for our Lord. Scholars seem to concur that the weight of the entire cross Simon carried would be normally about 300 pounds. Its physical makeup was about 15-feet for the long beam and 8-feet for the crossbar. Yet, was it an actual cross? Through biblical commentaries one discovers that typically the victim of crucifixion only carried the crossbar, which in itself weighed somewhere between 75 to 125 pounds. As David Guzik states, “When the victim carried the crossbar, he was usually stripped naked and his hands were often tied to the wood. The upright beams were often permanently fixed in a visible place outside of the city walls, beside a major road. Many times before this day, Jesus probably passed by the very upright He would hang upon” (Guzik).

As the death procession advances, they are making their way closer and closer toward, “The place called Golgotha” (Mark 15:22). “The Aramaic word translated for ‘Golgotha,’ which is gulgoleth, meaning ‘skull,’ or ‘head’” (Brown). This definition has conjured up many fabrications. The theory that since Golgotha means “The Place of the Skull,” provides the notion of the place of Christ’s death had the appearance of a skull-like hill. Yet, with simply research, one can conclude that, “From early Christian times, virtually all commentators held that Golgotha was so named simply because it was a place of execution, where the skulls and bones of criminals lay scattered” (Stump). Furthermore, the idea that the hill was skull-shaped is a modern day idea which dates back only from the 19th century. One important idea to distinguish with regards to this account is when contrasting verses 21 and 22 with each other. Verse 21 uses the words “They led Him,” while verse 22 states, “They brought Him.” These differing terms, while seemingly unnoticeable, allow the reader the chance to comprehend the extreme physical exhaustion that our Savior was under. You see, when Christ had departed the Praetorium following his beating, they were leading Him; when He made His way toward Golgotha the term changed to signify that they were bearing Him.

In Mark 15:23, Marks conveys “Then they offered him wine mixed with myrrh, but he did not take it” (Mark 15:23). Almost immediately this verse brings the reader to see an irony unfolding. What a paradox we have before us. Myrrh the same offering given to Christ at birth is now being offered to Him near the time of His death. To fully understand the implication of what Myrrh is, it is best to look at, “The Greek word translated for ‘myrhh,’ which is smyrnizō meaning ‘bitter,’’” (Brown). “Myrrh refers to the resinous dried sap of a number of trees of various Commiphora and Balsamodendron species” (Foster). It is a very valuable commodity that can be dried and burned as incense, added to perfume, or in this case mingled with wine to provide a painkilling medication. When reading Proverbs 31:6, one finds that the offering of wine mixed with Myrrh was a Jewish custom offered to those in agony as a means to dull the pain. “Give strong drink to the one who is perishing, and wine to those in bitter distress” (Proverbs 31:6).

Even near death, Mark 15:23 continues to show the character and reliance on our Heavenly Father that Christ possessed. As Mark conveyed when Christ was offered the painkilling drug, “But he did not take it” (Mark 15:23). This speaks volumes to the integrity and unbreakable faith that Christ embodied. It is in this short phrase that one comes to identify why Christ refused to accept His last means of comfort. As John Gill states in his commentary, Christ chose not to drink, “To show that He needed no such outward means to support His spirits, nor desired any allay of his sorrows, and was not afraid to meet death in all its terrors; and besides, He had said He would drink no more of the fruit of the vine till He drank it new in His Father’s kingdom, (Matthew 26:29)” (Gill).

Building HIS Kingdom One Soul at a Time…

Pastor Steve

Works Cited:
Brown, Francis, S.R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs. “A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament.” Searchgodsword.org. 2001-2011. Web. August 7, 2011

Foster, Niki. “What is Myrrh?” Wisegeek.com. April 26, 2011. Web. August 7, 2011.

Gill, John. “John Gill’s Exposition of the Bible: Mark” Biblestudytools.com. 2011. Web. August 7, 2011.

Guzik, David. “David Guzik Commentary on Mark 15.” Studylight.org. 2011. Web. August 7, 2011.

Stump, Keith W. “Where was Golgotha.” Gci.org. 2011. Web. August 7, 2011

 

Categories: The Curcifixion | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 3 Comments

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